Relevant ReadingsThe primary readings for this chapter are Matthew 26-27, Mark 14-15, and Luke 22-23.
SummaryNote: the summary does not analyze as fully the details of the Last Supper, which are covered in The Last Supper (Synoptics #18), nor Jesus' prayers in Gethsemane, which are covered in Agony in Gethsemane (Synoptics #19).
|Matthew 26-27||Mark 14-15||Luke 22-23|
|Jesus predicts his crucifixion: "You know that in two days' time it will be Passover, and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified."|
|3-5||The chief priests (led by Caiaphas) meet to plot Jesus' arrest||14: |
|The chief priests meet to plot Jesus' arrest||22: |
|The chief priests meet to plot Jesus' arrest|
|6-14||Jesus is annointed with oil in Bethany; the disciples complain about the waste of perfumed oil, and Jesus replies "The poor you will always have with you; but you will not always have me."||2-9||Jesus is annointed with oil in Bethany; the disciples complain about the waste of oil, and Jesus replies "The poor you will always have with you, and whenever you wish you can do good to them, but you will not always have me."|
|14-16||Judas asks for money from the chief priests for handing Jesus over to them; they give him thirty pieces of silver, and he looks for an opportunity to betray Jesus||10-11||Judas tells the chief priests he can hand Jesus over to them; they reward him with the promise of money||3-6||Satan [enters] into Judas, who discusses a plan for Jesus' arrest, and is paid by the chief priests|
|17-29||The Last Supper||12-25||The Last Supper||7-23||The Last Supper|
|24-30||The disciples argue over who is the greatest among them|
|30-32||They go to the Mount of Olives and Jesus tells them "This night all of you will have your faith in me shaken, for it is written: 'I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be dispersed'; but after I have been raised up, I shall go before you to Galilee."||26-28||They go to the Mount of Olives and Jesus tells them "All of you will have your faith shaken, for it is written: 'I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be dispersed.' But after I have been raised up, I shall go before you to Galilee."||31-32||Jesus warns Simon (Peter) that his faith is being tested by Satan, and that he must strengthen the faith of the other disciples|
|33-35||Peter says his faith shall not be shaken; Jesus says Peter will deny him three times before the cock crows that night, but Peter and the other disciples say "Even though I should have to die with you, I will not deny you"||29-31||Peter says his faith shall not be shaken; Jesus says Peter will deny him three times before the cock crows twice that night, but Peter and the other disciples say "Even though I should have to die with you, I will not deny you"||33-34||Peter says he is prepared to go to prison and die with Jesus; Jesus says Peter shall deny him three times before the cock crows that day|
|35-38||Jesus warns the disciples of the hard times and opposition that face them|
|36-46||Agony in Gethsemane||32-42||Agony in Gethsemane||39-46||Agony in Gethsemane|
|47-50||Judas arrives with an armed crowd from the chief priests; he kisses Jesus and says "Hail, Rabbi!" and Jesus replies "Friend, do what you have come for"; Jesus is then arrested||43-46||Judas arrives with an armed crowd from the chief priests; he kisses Jesus and says "Rabbi"; Jesus is then arrested||47-48||Judas arrives with a crowd; he kisses Jesus, who says to him "Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?"|
|51-54||One of those who accompanied Jesus cuts the ear off one of the high priest's servant with a sword; Jesus rebukes him saying "all who take the sword will perish by the sword"||47||One of the bystanders cuts the ear off one of the high priest's servants||49-51||Jesus' disciples ask "shall we strike with a sword" and one of them cuts the ear off one of the high priest's servants; Jesus rebukes him saying "Stop, no more of this!" and heals the servant's ear|
|55-57||Jesus comments on the nature of his arrest: not in the temple, but away from the crowds "that the writings of the prophets may be fulfilled"; he is then led of to Caiaphas||48-53||Jesus comments on the nature of his arrest: not in the temple, but away from the crowds "that the scriptures may be fulfilled"; his disciples flee, and Jesus is led off to the high priest's court; a young man follows but is caught and runs off naked||52-54||Jesus comments on the nature of his arrest: not in the temple, but away from the crowds, during "the time for the power of darkness"|
|58||Peter follows at a distance, and sits down in the courtyard with the servants||54||Peter follows at a distance, and sits down in the courtyard with the guards by a fire||54-55||Peter follows at a distance, and sits down in the courtyard where a fire has just been made|
|59-62||Two men bear false witness against Jesus, saying "This man said, 'I can destroy the temple of God and within three days rebuild it.'"||55-60||Many bear false witness against Jesus, with some saying "We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple made with hands and within three days I will build another not made with hands.'"; but their testimonies do not agree|
|63-66||The high priest asks Jesus to swear before God whether he is the Messiah; Jesus says "You have said so. But I tell you: From now on you will see 'the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Power' and 'coming on the clouds of heaven.'"; the high priest tears his robes in anger and accuses Jesus of blasphemy and the crowd demands death as punishment||61-64||The high priest asks Jesus whether or not he is the Messiah; Jesus says "I am; and 'you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Power and coming with the clouds of heaven.'"; the high priest tears his garments in anger and accuses Jesus of blasphemy and the crowd demands death as punishment||56-62||Peter denies Jesus three times, and a cock crows just as he finishes the third denial; Peter sees Jesus turn to look at him, and remembering Jesus' words he goes out and weeps|
|63-65||Jesus is ridiculed and beaten; he is struck while blindfolded and asked to prophesy who struck him|
|67-68||Jesus is spat upon; he is struck and asked to prophesy who hit him||65||Jesus is spat upon; he is blindfolded and struck and asked to prophesy||66-71||The Sanhedrin ask Jesus to tell them if he is the Messiah; Jesus says that if he tells them, they won't believe him, "But from this time on the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God."; they ask him if he is the Son of God, and he says "You say that I am"|
|69-75||Peter denies Jesus three times, and a cock crows immediately after the third denial; Peter remembers the words of Jesus and goes out and weeps||66-72||Peter denies Jesus three times, and a cock crows after his first and third denial; Peter remembers the words of Jesus and breaks down and weeps|
|In the morning, Jesus is bound and brought to Pilate||15: |
|In the morning, Jesus is bound and brought to Pilate||23: |
|The crowd brings Jesus to Pilate|
|3-10||Judas regrets handing Jesus when he learns Jesus is condemned to death, betraying innocent blood; he throws the money into the temple and goes off and hangs himself; the priests decide not to deposit the silver into the temple treasury (because it is blood money)|
|11-14||Pilate asks Jesus if he is the king of the Jews, and he replies "You say so"; Jesus does not respond to further accusations and questions||2-5||Pilate asks Jesus if he is the king of the Jews, and he replies "You say so"; Jesus does not respond to further accusations and questions||2-4||The assembly accuses Jesus of opposing Caesar and claiming himself a king, the Messiah; Pilate asks him if he is the king of the Jews, and he replies "You say so"; Pilate declares Jesus not guilty|
|15-18||Pilate asks the crowd if they wants Jesus called Messiah or (Jesus) Barabbas released||6-10||Pilate asks the crowd if they want Jesus or Barabbas released||5-7||The crowd reveals Jesus is a Galilean, and so Pilate sends him to Herod for judgment|
|19||Pilate's wife tells him of her dream, and warns him to have no part in the trial of that righteous man||8-11||Jesus does not answer any of Herod's questions; Herod and his soldiers mistreat Jesus and send him back to Pilate dressed in resplendent garb|
|20-26||The crowd opts for the release of Barabbas, and demands Jesus be crucified; Pilate gives in to the crowd, has Jesus scourged, and hands him over to be crucified; the crowd assumes responsibility for Jesus' blood||11-15||The crowd opts for the release of Barabbas, and demands Jesus be crucified; Pilate gives in to the crowd, has Jesus scourged, and hands him over to be crucified||13-16||Pilate decides to flog Jesus and then release him|
|17-25||The crowd demands the release of Barabbas and to have Jesus crucified, so Pilate gives in and hands Jesus over to them|
|27-31||The soldiers strip Jesus and give him a scarlet military cloak, a reed, and a crown of thorns; they mock him be kneeling before him and saying "Hail, King of the Jews!"; they spit on him and strike him with the reed before dressing him in his own clothes and leading him off to be crucified||16-20||The soldiers dress Jesus in purple and a crown of thorns; they salute him with "Hail, King of the Jews!"; they spit on him and strike him with a reed, and kneel before him in mocking homage; then they dress him in his own clothes and lead him off to be crucified|
- Describe the accounts of Jesus' betrayal and arrest: Matthew 26:47-56, Mark 14:43-52, and Luke 22:47-53.
See the summary.
- What was foretold (Psalm 41:10-11) and what became of the betrayer (Matthew 27:3-10)?
The psalm says that the friend who had my trust, shared my table, has scorned me. In Matthew, we read that Judas, feeling remorse for what he has done, throws the money he was given into the temple, and runs off to hang himself.
- Explain Peter's behavior: Matthew 26:69-75, Mark 14:66-72, and Luke 22:56-62.
All three synoptics give similar accounts of Peter's interrogation and denial of Jesus. The first person to recognize Peter is a maid in the courtyard. In Matthew, she says he was "with Jesus the Galilean", to which Peter replies "I do not know what you are talking about". in Mark, he was "with the Nazarene, Jesus", and he replies "I neither know nor understand what you are talking about", and then a cock crows for the first time. The maid in Luke says Peter "was with him", and Peter replies "Woman, I do not know him".
The accounts of the second denial differ. In Matthew, another girl sees Peter as he walks out the gate from the courtyard and says "This man was with Jesus the Nazorean" and Peter swears "I do not know the man!" In Mark, the same maid tells some bystanders that Peter "is one of them"; Peter overhears her and denies it again. In Luke, another person, some short while later, says to Peter "You too are on of them" but Peter replies "My friend, I am not".
All three accounts of the last denial end with Peter recalling Christ's prophecy of his denials and with Peter weeping (bitterly). In Matthew, the bystanders say to Peter that even his speech gives him away as one of them, and Peter curses and swears that he "[does] not know the man". In Mark, the bystanders identify Peter as a Galilean and one of them, and Peter curses and swears he "[does] not know this man about whom [they] are talking". The man in Luke's account also recognizes Peter as a Galilean, and Peter replies "My friend, I do not know what you are talking about". In Matthew and Mark, the cock crows immediately after Peter has finished speaking; in Luke's account, the cock crows just as [Peter] was saying this.
- What was foretold of Peter in Matthew 26:30-35, Mark 14:26-31, and Luke 22:31-34?
Matthew and Mark have similar accounts: as Jesus and his disciples arrive at the Mount of Olives, Jesus warns them their faith will be shaken, as the shepherd will be struck and "the sheep [Matthew: of the flock] will be dispersed"; Jesus also tells them he will go to Galilee ahead of them after he has been "raised up". Then Peter says that, though others' faith may be shaken, his will not be (although Matthew uses the stronger word "never" in place of "not"). Jesus tells Peter that Peter will deny him three times "this very night" before the cock crows (once in Matthew, twice in Mark).
Luke's account differs slightly from the other two, taking place (as far as can be determined) in the room of the Last Supper. Jesus says to Peter, addressing him as Simon, "behold Satan has demanded to sift all of you like wheat, but I have prayed that your own faith may not fail; and once you have turned back, you must strengthen your brothers". Christ is referring to the role Peter will play in the early history of the church, during the Acts of the Apostles. Peter then tells Jesus he is "prepared to go to prison and to die with you", but Jesus replies that Peter will betray him three times "before the cock crows this day".
- To whom was Jesus taken first, and with what type of testimony, as recalled in Matthew 26:57-59?
Jesus was first led to Caiaphas the high priest, and the entire Sanhedrin. They sought false testimony against Jesus so that he might be put to death; Exodus 20:16, one of the ten commandments, reads "You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor".
- Compare the following passages: Mark 14:61, Isaiah 53:7, Matthew 26:64, Psalm 110:1, and Daniel 7:13.
Jesus remained silent for most of the questioning, just as Isaiah prophesied: "though he was harshly treated, he submitted and opened not his mouth".
When Jesus did answer, it was to tell them that the Son of Man would be "seated at the right hand of the Power", quoting from Psalm 110:1, and "coming on the clouds of heaven", quoting from Daniel 7:13.
- What was Jesus falsely accused of (Matthew 26:65) and what was the penalty (Leviticus 24:16)?
The high priest claims Jesus blasphemed (although it does not seem that he did). Leviticus reads that the punishment for blasphemy is stoning.
- When was Jesus taken to Pilate, and what were the events of trial, as described in Mark 15:1-5 and John 18:29-38?
Jesus was taken to Pilate as soon as morning came. In most accounts, Jesus is rather silent in his questioning; Mark has him answering only one question of Pilate's: Pilate questioned him, "Are you the king of the Jews?" He said to him in reply, "You say so." Afterwards, Jesus is accused of many things but makes no response, amazing Pilate.
John's account is far more philosophical. Pilate seeks to know Jesus' crime, but the crowd is reluctant to answer and says they do not have the right to execute anyone. When Pilate asks Jesus is if he is the "King of the Jews", Jesus asks what prompted Pilate to say that. When Pilate asks Jesus what he has done, such that his own "nation and chief priests" have handed him over, Jesus says "My kingdom does not belong to this world. If my kingdom did belong to this world, my attendants would be fighting to keep me from being handed over to the Jews. But as it is, my kingdom is not here." Pilate then asks Jesus if he is, indeed, a king. Jesus replies "You say I am a king. For this I was born and for this I came into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who belongs to the truth listens to my voice." At this, Pilate asks "What is truth?" and then reports to the Jews that he cannot find any guilt in Jesus.
- Describe the input from three sets of people to Pilate about Jesus: Mark 15:1-5, Matthew 27:19, and Luke 23:13-25.
In Mark, the chief priests of the Sanhedrin accuse Jesus of many things, to which Jesus gives no response.
Matthew's account mentions Pilate's wife warning him of a dream she had: "Have nothing to do with that righteous man. I suffered much in a dream today because of him."
Luke's account mentions Herod finding no charges of which to accuse Jesus. The crowd calls for the release of a convicted murderer (Barabbas) and for the crucifixion of Jesus.
- Why was Jesus subjected to a third trial, according to Luke 23:6-8?
Luke has Pilate recognizing Herod's jurisdiction over Galilee, since Jesus was from that region.
- Why was Herod glad to see Jesus in Luke 23:8-10?
Herod had heard of Jesus and wanted to see him perform a sign or miracle for him.
- How did Herod and his soldiers treat Jesus in Luke 23:11?
They treated him contemptuously and mocked him. They dressed him up in robes when they sent him back to Pilate.
- What did we learn of Herod's father in Matthew 2:7-8,16-18?
Herod's father sent the magi to Bethlehem when he heard of Jesus' birth. Later he ordered a massacre of boys of two years or less in the area of Bethlehem in an attempt to kill Jesus.
- Why was Herod curious about Jesus (Luke 9:7-9), and what had been his attitude toward Jesus during his ministry (Luke 13:31-33)?
Some people confused Jesus with John the Baptist "raise from the dead", whom Herod had beheaded, or one of the other prophets (such as Elijah). Herod wants to know who it is that is causing such a stir.
Herod had sought to kill Jesus, but Jesus would not be deterred from his work.
- Identify two serious sins of Herod from Mark 6:17-29 and Matthew 14:2-12.
Herod was married to Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip. Herod had John the Baptist beheaded to appease Herodias.
- Recall the previous trials of Jesus in the desert from Matthew 4:1-11.
Matthew 4:1-4: Satan asks Jesus to turn stones into bread. Jesus replies, quoting Deuteronomy 8:3.
- How did Jesus defend himself: Mark 14:60-62, Matthew 27:11, and Luke 23:9?
In Mark, Jesus remains silent in front of the Sanhedrin until he is asked "Are you the Messiah, the son of the Blessed One?" when he answers "I am; and 'you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Power and coming with the clouds of heaven.'". In Matthew, when Pilate asks if he is the "king of the Jews", he replies "You say so". In Luke, he remains silent before Herod.
- Why did Jesus allow himself to be subjected to torture and death?
In CCC 609 it says that, by his suffering and death, his humanity was perfected into the instrument of divine love through which we have received salvation. "Greater love has no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends."
- Who was responsible for Jesus' death?
While there appears to be Scriptural support for "blaming the Jews" for Jesus' death, CCC 597 makes it clear that Jesus, and Peter afterwards, recognized the "ignorance" of those involved. The responsibility falls on those who do know Jesus and yet continue to sin against him (CCC 598). Jesus' death was a necessity ever since the Fall of man, and in light of that, all sinners up to his time on earth are responsible for Jesus' death. And now, after his crucifixion, it is we who must accept responsibility when we sin against God, and ask for repentence.
- What did Jesus accomplish by his obedience?
CCC 615 tells us that Jesus' obedience to God's will, even to death, transformed Jesus into an "offering for sin", atoning for our sins and opening the door to redemption.