Wednesday, March 22, 2006

Bible Study: Synoptics #21: Crucifixion and Death of Jesus

Relevant Readings

The primary readings for this chapter are Matthew 27:27-56, Mark 15:16-41, and Luke 23:26-49.

Additional passages are: Psalm 22, Psalm 31, Isaiah 50:6, Isaiah 53, John 19:19,25-28,30, 1 Corinthians 15:54-57, and Philippians 2:5-11.

Summary

Matthew 27:31-56 Mark 15:20-41 Luke 23:26-49
27-31 The soldiers strip Jesus and give him a scarlet military cloak, a reed, and a crown of thorns; they mock him be kneeling before him and saying "Hail, King of the Jews!"; they spit on him and strike him with the reed before dressing him in his own clothes and leading him off to be crucified 16-20 The soldiers dress Jesus in purple and a crown of thorns; they salute him with "Hail, King of the Jews!"; they spit on him and strike him with a reed, and kneel before him in mocking homage; then they dress him in his own clothes and lead him off to be crucified

32 The soldiers press Simon the Cyrenian into service to carry the cross 21 The soldiers press Simon the Cyrenian into service to carry the cross 26 The soldiers press Simon the Cyrenian into service to carry the cross behind Jesus
27-31 Jesus tells a group of mourning women to weep for themselves and their children instead of him, because of the hard times that will soon befall Jerusalem
33-34 Jesus arrives at Golgotha; they give him wine mixed with gall, but he refuses to drink it 22-23 Jesus arrives at Golgotha; they give him wine drugged with myrrh, but he refuses to drink it 32-33 Jesus arrives at Golgotha; two criminals are crucified on his right and left
35-36 The soldiers crucify Christ and cast lots for his garments, and kept watch over him 24-25 The soldiers crucify Christ and cast lots for his garments; the time was nine in the morning 34 The soldiers crucify Christ and cast lots for his garments; Jesus says "Father, forgive them, they know not what they do."
35-37 People stand and watch, and the leaders of the people taunt Jesus saying "He saved others, let him save himself if he is the chosen one, the Messiah of God."; soldiers jeer at him and offer him wine and say "If you are King of the Jews, save yourself."
37 The charge against him is written as This is Jesus, the King of the Jews on his tablet 26 The charge against him is written as The King of the Jews on his tablet 38 The charge against him is written as This is the King of the Jews on his tablet
38 Jesus has two revolutionaries on his right and left, also being crucified 27 Jesus has two revolutionaries on his right and left, also being crucified 39-40 Jesus has two revolutionaries crucified with him; one of them reviles Jesus saying "Are you not the Messiah? Save yourself and us." but the other rebukes him
39-44 Passersby say "You who would destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save yourself"; the priests, the elders, and the scribes mock Jesus saying that "he saved others; he cannot save himself", and that if Jesus comes down from the cross, they will believe in him; the revolutionaries also insult him 29-32 Passersby say "You who would destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save yourself by coming down from the cross"; the priests and scribes mock Jesus saying that "he saved others; he cannot save himself", and that if "the Messiah" comes down from the cross, they will believe in him; the revolutionaries also insult him 41-43 The penitent criminal says that they are suffering the same condemnation as Jesus who "has done nothing criminal"; he implores Jesus "remember me when you come into your kingdom" and Jesus replies "today you will be with me in Paradise."
43 The land is darkened from noon until three in the afternoon 33 The land is darkened from noon until three in the afternoon 44 The land is darkened from noon until three in the afternoon (due to an eclipse of the sun)
46-47 Jesus cries out "Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?", and the bystanders think he is calling for Elijah 34-35 Jesus cries out "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?", and the bystanders think he is calling Elijah
48-49 Someone soaks a sponge in wine, sticks it on a reed, and offers it to Jesus; the others say "Wait; let us see if Elijah comes to save him" 36 Someone soaks a sponge in wine, sticks it on a reed, and offers it to Jesus saying "Wait, let us see if Elijah comes to take him down"
50-51 Jesus cries out in a loud voice, and gives up his spirit; the veil of the sanctuary is torn in two from top to bottom, and there is an earthquake 37-38 Jesus gives a loud cry and breathes his last; the veil of the sanctuary is torn in two from top to bottom 45-46 The veil in the temple is torn down the middle; Jesus cries out in a loud voice "Father, into your hands I commend my spirit" and breathes his last
52-53 Tombs are opened, and the bodies of many saints who had fallen asleep are raised and appear to many in the holy city after Jesus's resurrection
54 The centurion and his men keeping watch say "Truly, this was the Son of God!" 39 The centurion says "Truly this man was the Son of God!" 47-48 The centurion glorifies God and says "This man was innocent beyond doubt"; the spectators go home beating their breasts
55-56 Many women watch from a distance who had followed Jesus from Galilee, including Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee 40-41 Many women watch from a distance who had followed Jesus from Galilee, including Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of the younger James and Joses, and Salome 49 Jesus's acquaintances watch from a distance, including the women who had followed him from Galilee

Questions

  1. Find verses in Isaiah 53 that foretell the suffering servant.
    Isaiah 53:3-5 talks of a man of suffering [...] spurned, who endured our sufferings: his suffering for our sins heals us and makes us whole. Isaiah 53:7-8 says that he was like a lamb led to the slaughter, and smitten for the sin of his people.
  2. How did people react to Jesus at Golgotha in Matthew 27:29, Mark 15:16-20, and Luke 23:26-27?
    The soldiers made him a crown of thorns and mocked him, calling him "King of the Jews" as they struck him and spat on him. Simon of Cyrene was pulled into service to help Jesus carry his cross, and many women in the large crowd that followed Jesus were mourning and lamenting him.
  3. Compare the following verses: Isaiah 50:6, Matthew 27:30, and Mark 15:19-20.
    Isaiah prophesied Jesus letting himself be beaten and spat upon; this is fulfilled in the Gospels when Jesus is spat at and struck by the soldiers.
  4. Describe the encounter in Luke 23:27-31.
    Jesus tells the women mourning for him that they should be mourning for their own sakes, not for him. Luke oftens refers to the destruction of Jerusalem, so he may be alluding to it here as well. Jesus says that if they are so distraught now (when the wood is green) how bad will it be when it is dry?
  5. Find verses in Psalm 22 that describe Jesus on the cross.
    Psalm 22:2a: My God, my God, why have you abandoned me?

    Psalm 22:7-9: I am [...] scorned by everyone, all who see me mock me [and] shake their heads at me: "You relied on the Lord -- let him deliver you"

    Psalm 22:19: they deivide my garments among them; for my clothing they cast lots

  6. How would you explain Psalm 22:31-32?
    And I will live for the LORD; my descendants will serve you. The generation to come will be told of the Lord, that they may proclaim to a people yet unborn the deliverance you have brought.

    I believe these two verses foretell of the birth of Christianity: Jesus lives for God (the LORD), and those who proceed from him (his descendants: the apostles, disciples, etc.) serve God through him.

  7. According to CCC 601, CCC 602, and CCC 603, why did Jesus die on the cross?
    CCC 601: Jesus's death fulfilled Isaiah's prophecy of the "suffering servant". CCC 602: Jesus identified with us by taking on the burden of our sin. Through his death, he accepted our fate on his perfect person as a perfect sacrifice. CCC 603: Jesus, the spotless lamb, was the sacrifice that restored us to God.
  8. Compare the following verses: Matthew 27:38-44, Mark 15:32, and Luke 23:39-43.
    See the summary. Luke's account differs from Matthew's and Mark's, in that one of the two revolutionaries is penitent and believes Jesus is righteous.
  9. What is the significance of Psalm 22:19 and Mark 15:24?
    The soldiers acted in the manner prescribed in Psalm 22:19.
  10. What were the "Seven Last Words" of Jesus?
    Luke 23:34: "Father, forgive them, they know not what they do." Luke 23:43: "Amen, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise." John 19:26-27: "Woman, behold, your son. Behold, your mother." Matthew 27:46: "Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani." John 19:28: "I thirst." John 19:30: "It is finished." Luke 23:46: "Father, into your hands I commend my spirit."
  11. What words identified Jesus on the cross in Matthew 27:37, Mark 15:26, Luke 23:38, and John 19:19?
    This is Jesus, the King of the Jews in Matthew, The King of the Jews in Mark, This is the King of the Jews in Luke, and Jesus the Nazorean, the King of the Jews in John.
  12. What attempt was made to quench Jesus's thirst in Matthew 27:48 and Mark 15:36?
    Someone fetched a sponge, soaked it in wine, and stuck it on a reed (a stick) to offer to Jesus.
  13. How is the sky reported in Matthew 27:45?
    It became dark -- Luke attributes this to an eclipse of the sun.
  14. What do the following passages confirm: Matthew 27:50, Mark 15:37, Luke 23:46, and John 19:30?
    Jesus willingly gave up his spirit.
  15. Who stayed at the cross, as reported in Matthew 27:55-56, Mark 15:40-41, and John 19:25-27?
    Matthew lists Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph and Zebedee's wife. Mark names Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of the younger James and of Joses, and Salome. John's list is a little confusing due to the English punctuation, but it appears to name four women: Jesus's mother, Jesus's aunt, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary of Magdala.
  16. How would you apply Psalm 31 to Jesus on the cross?
    Psalm 31:6 is the line Luke has Jesus quoting right before he gives up his spirit. Psalm 31:14 mentions a plot to take my life, but the theme of the psalm is that despite the hardships, the speaker places his trust fully in God.
  17. What happened at the moment Jesus died, in Matthew 27:51-54?
    The veil in the sanctuary of the temple was torn from to bottom. There was an earthquake, and the bodies of many saints who had fallen asleep were raised, and they were seen in Jerusalem after Christ's resurrection. The centurion standing guard said "Truly, this was the Son of God!"
  18. What conclusions were drawn by the witnesses in Matthew 27:54, Mark 15:39, and Luke 23:47.
    In Matthew, the Centurion says "Truly, this was the Son of God!" In Mark, he says "Truly this man was the Son of God!" In Luke, he says "This man was innocent [or righteous] beyond doubt."
  19. How does Paul explain in 1 Cor 15:54-57 what was accomplished by Jesus's sacrifice on the cross?
    Paul writes that "Death is swallowed up in victory". Death loses its sting because Jesus's acceptance of our death to sin upon himself has freed us from the grip of sin and death.
  20. What did Jesus demonstrate in accepting crucifixion for our sins, according to Paul in Philippians 2:5-11?
    Jesus was obedient to God's will, even to death on the cross. He emptied himself and took on humanity. Paul mentions that Jesus "did not regard equality with God something to be grasped": this alludes to Adam and Eve "grasping" at the apple in Eden that the serpent told them would make them "like God". Although Jesus was "in the form of God", he took "human likeness", coming as one who is ruled over and governed, rather than one in a position of power.

1 comment:

Oreo said...

Wow. Now THIS is a Bible study. I will have to come here more often. :) Thanks for coming to mine.
Oreo's Mom,
Heather