Thursday, February 23, 2006

Bible Study: Synoptics #18: The Last Supper

Relevant Readings

The primary readings for this chapter are Matthew 26:17-29, Mark 14:12-25, Luke 22:7-20, and 1 Corinthians 11:23-26. I would suggest reading Luke 22:21-23 as well, as Luke places the talk of Jesus' betrayal after the benediction.

Additional passages are: Exodus 12:21-30;13:3, Psalms 41:9-10;55:12-14, Matthew 26:1-2,6-16, Mark 14:10-11, Luke 22:2-6, John 6:53-56;12:3-8, Acts 2:42,46-47, 1 Corinthians 11:27-29, and Hebrews 9:11-22.

Summary

Matthew 26:17-29 Mark 14:12-25 Luke 22:7-20(-23) 1 Cor 11:23-26
17-20 Jesus sends his disciples to prepare the Passover: "Go into the city to a certain man and tell him, 'The teacher says, "My appointed time draws near; in your house I shall celebrate the Passover with my disciples."'" 12-17 Jesus sends his disciples to prepare the Passover: "Go into the city and a man will meet you, carrying a jar of water. Follow him. Wherever he enters, say to the master of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is my guest room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"'" 7-14 Jesus sends his disciples to prepare the Passover: "When you go into the city, a man will meet you carrying a jar of water. Follow him into the house that he enters and say to the master of the house, 'The teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"'"

21-24 Jesus predicts his betrayal; the disciples become distressed and each asks Jesus if it is him, and Jesus says "He who has dipped his hand into the dish with me is the one who will betray me. The Son of Man indeed goes, as it is written of him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed. It would be better for that man if he had never been born." 18-21 Jesus predicts his betrayal; the disciples become distressed and each asks Jesus if it is him, and Jesus says "One of the Twelve, the one who dips with me into the dish. For the Son of Man indeed goes, as it is written of him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed. It would be better for that man if he had never been born." (21-22) Jesus predicts his betrayal, saying "And yet behold, the hand of the one who is to betray me is with me on the table; for the Son of Man indeed goes as it has been determined; but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed."
25 Then Judas, his betrayer, said in reply, "Surely it is not I, Rabbi?" He answered, "You have said so."
26-28 Jesus shares the bread and wine with his disciples. He calls the bread his body, and the wine his blood of the new covenant shed on behalf of many for the forgiveness of sins. 22-24 Jesus shares the bread and wine with his disciples. He calls the bread his body, and the wine his blood of the covenant shed for many. 19-20 Jesus shares the bread and wine with his disciples. He calls the bread his body and the cup the new covenant in my blood. 23-25 Jesus shares the bread and wine with his disciples. He calls the bread [his] body for you and the cup the new covenant in [his] blood.
29 Jesus says he shall not drink this fruit of the vine until they are united in the kingdom of [his] Father. 25 Jesus says he shall not drink the fruit of the vine until he drinks it in the kingdom of God. 15-18 Jesus explains that he shall not eat the Passover or drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.

Questions

  1. Before the Last Supper, what did Jesus say to his disciples in Matthew 26:1-2?
    [In] two days' time it will be Passover, and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified.
  2. Describe the kindness the woman offers Jesus in Matthew 26:6-13.
    She anointed him with an expensive perfumed oil; Jesus says she prepared him for burial.
  3. Compare and identify unique elements in Matthew 26:14-16, Mark 14:10-11, and Luke 22:2-6.
    In Matthew, Judas goes to the chief priests and asks for money to hand Jesus over to them; they give him thirty pieces of silver. In Mark, the priests give Judas money in return for his promise to hand Jesus over. Luke writes that Satan entered into Judas, who then went and discussed a plan to hand Jesus over with the priests and temple guards, after which they paid him; Judas seeks to betray Jesus in the absence of a crowd.
  4. How does John describe Judas' motivation in John 12:3-8?
    John writes that Judas was dishonest and a thief, and that he wanted to see the oil sold so he could hold the money and steal some for himself.
  5. To whom do the following Psalms refer: Psalm 41:9-10 and Psalm 55:12-14?
    A close and trusted friend, implying Judas.
  6. Identify unique information from these passages: Matthew 26:17-19, Mark 14:12-17, and Luke 22:7-14.
    Matthew's account is the most brief. In it, Jesus tells his disciples to tell a certain man in the city that the teacher's appointed time draws near, and that he shall celebrate the Passover in that man's house.

    Mark has Jesus prophesying a man with a jar of water, who his disciples are to follow into a house, where they ask the master of the house The Teacher says, "Where is my guest room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?", upon which they are to be shown a large upper room furnished for the meal. Mark also mentions the sacrificial lamb of the Passover meal.

    Luke also mentions the lamb, and specifies Jesus sending Peter and John to follow signs in the city.

  7. Why did Jesus institute the Eucharist at the Last Supper?
    CCC 1323 tells us he did it to perpetuate the sacrifice of the cross until his return. We say "we proclaim your death, Lord Jesus, until you come again".
  8. Explain the Eucharist in three different ways.
    CCC 1324: the source and summit of the Christian life; CCC 1325: the efficacious sign and sublime cause of that communion in the divine life and that unity of the People of God; CCC 1326: unity with the heavenly liturgy and anticipation of eternal life.
  9. Write and meditate on each of the following verses: Matthew 26:26-29, Mark 14:22-24, Luke 22:17-20, John 6:53-56, and 1 Corinthians 11:23-26.
    Matthew: While they were eating, Jesus took bread, said the blessing, broke it, and giving it to his disciples said, "Take and eat; this is my body." Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you, for this is my blood of the covenant, which will be shed on behalf of many for the forgiveness of sins. I tell you, from now on I shall not drink this fruit of the vine until the day when I drink it with you new in the kingdom of my Father." Mark: While they were eating, he took bread, said the blessing, broke it, and gave it to them, and said, "Take it; this is my body." Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and gave it to them, and they all drank from it. He said to them, "This is my blood of the covenant, which will be shed for many. Luke: Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and said, "Take this and share it among yourselves; for I tell you (that) from this time on I shall not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes." Then he took the bread, said the blessing, broke it, and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body, which will be given for you; do this in memory of me." And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which will be shed for you. John: Jesus said to them, "Amen, amen, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you do not have life within you. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him on the last day. For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me and I in him. 1 Corinthians: For I received from the Lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord Jesus, on the night he was handed over, took bread, and, after he had given thanks, broke it and said, "This is my body that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me." In the same way also the cup, after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me." For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the death of the Lord until he comes.
  10. According to 1 Corinthians 11:27-29, what should precede worthy reception of the Eucharist?
    Self-reflection (a person should examine himself) and repentence. What the congregation says at Mass immediately prior to receiving the Eucharist, "Lord, I am not worthy to receive you; only say the word and I shall be healed" is a paraphrasing of Matthew 8:8.
  11. How did the early Christians worship, in Acts 2:42,46-74?
    They taught as they learned from the apostles, broke and shared bread, prayed together, praising God.
  12. When you receive Holy Communion, what does 1 Corinthians 11:26 say you proclaim?
    We proclaim the death of the Lord until he comes. This does not mean we focus on his mortal demise (and ignore his immortal resurrection), but rather that we acknowledge and accept the sacrifice he made.
  13. Explain Exodus 12:21-30.
    This is the institution of the Passover feast. Before the last plague sent upon Egypt, the Lord instructed Moses to have the Israelites sprinkle the blood of a lamb upon their doorframes. As the Lord's power swept through Egypt, it would pass over any house so marked, sparing the life of any first-born inside.
  14. What did Moses institute in Exodus 13:3?
    The Feast of Unleavened Bread.
  15. How does Paul explain Jesus' role in the New Covenant in Hebrews 9:11-22?
    Paul says Jesus is the high priest, and a sacrifice that cleanses our consciences from dead works to worship the living God. Paul identifies Christ as the mediator, the new and everlasting Passover sacrifice.
  16. What does Jesus give us in the Eucharist?
    Matthew 26:28 and CCC 1365 identify the bread and wine of the Eucharist as the body and blood of Christ: the physical sacrifice, broken and shed on behalf of many for the forgiveness of sins.
  17. Explain how Christ's sacrifice is re-presented in the Eucharist.
    CCC 1366 says that the Eucharist is the memorial of Christ's sacrifice on the cross, perpetuated until the end of the world, and applies itself to the forgiveness of our sins.
  18. What is contained in the Eucharist?
    CCC 1374: the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ and, therefore, the whole Christ is truly, really, and substantially contained.
  19. What is the purpose of the tabernacle?
    CCC 1379 says that it was originally where the Eucharist intended for ministering to the sick and home-bound was kept. Now it is the general location of the Eucharist, in constant silent adoration.

2 comments:

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Michael Gormley said...

I tell you, from now on I shall not drink this fruit of the vine until the day when I drink it with you new in the kingdom of my Father." (Matthew 26:29)

WHAT WAS FINISHED

I would like to start by asking you two questions. One: Can you give an accurate definition of the phrase: "Lamb of God"?

We all know that this is one of the names used for Jesus, like Messiah, Savior, Son of Man, or Christ. But exactly what is the importance of the name "Lamb of God"?

And why is it important to me as a Catholic? The second question I would like to ask you is: Why the Catholic Church would offer The Holy Eucharist every day at every Mass throughout the world in over 3000 languages.

What knowledge do they have that would make them feel compelled to do this for thousands of years?

In answering this question, we'll see why the Catechism of the Catholic Church states that "The Eucharist is the source and summit of the Christian life.'" (CC 1324)

Continue> > >